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Different Types of Glaucoma

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease. It occurs due to increased fluid pressure in the eyes due to excess fluid buildup.

The fluid pressure damages the eye’s optic nerves, causing blurred vision or gradual permanent vision loss or blindness if left untreated.

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Glaucoma symptoms differ in different types of the disease. Therefore, proper diagnosis is required to verify which type is causing these symptoms. Glaucoma is categorized based on the following parameters:

  • Glaucoma is primary (occurs due to fluid pressure in the eye – idiopathic) or secondary (associated with other systemic or ocular diseases).
  • Angular state of the anterior chamber of the eye in glaucoma – open or closed
  • Severity – acute or chronic

Glaucoma Symptoms

The most common form of glaucoma is primary open-angle glaucoma. It shows no signs or symptoms other than vision loss over time. It’s important to have regular, comprehensive eye exams so your eye doctor can monitor changes in your vision.

Symptoms of glaucoma are:

  • eye pain
  • nausea or vomiting
  • Colored rings around lights
  • Blurred vision
  • visual disturbances
  • redness in the eyes

types of glaucoma

Broadly speaking, the different types of glaucoma are:

  • Primary- occurs due to the angular closure and the increase in fluid pressure in the eye
  • Secondary- occurs due to other eye diseases, disorders and diseases

Open-angle and angle-closure are the most common forms of glaucoma, occurring in 70-90% of people. Other glaucomas are less common and only occur in a few people around the world.

primary glaucoma

This is ideally glaucoma, which occurs due to the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. Normally, the fluid pressure in the eye damages the optic nerves, leading to these glaucomas. The different types of primary glaucoma are:

Primary open-angle glaucoma

It is the most common form of glaucoma. It is an eye condition in which the optic nerve is damaged mainly due to increased fluid pressure in the eye. The fluid pressure puts pressure on the optic nerves, causing damage.

angle-closure glaucoma

It is the second most common form of glaucoma in humans. It is one of the largely hereditary diseases. It occurs suddenly and causes symptoms such as

  • eye pain
  • headache
  • nausea and vomiting
  • Halos, which are rarely seen around lights

This glaucoma occurs when fluid suddenly stops draining from the eye due to an obstruction in the outflow angle of the eye.

Angle-closure glaucoma is further divided into two categories:

Acute angle lock glaucoma: It starts suddenly when intraocular pressure rises due to blockage of the drainage canal.

Chronic angle lock glaucoma: This happens when the angle or mouth of the drainage canal slowly covers up, leading to increased intraocular pressure and damage to the optic nerve.

Childhood glaucoma

It is a rare form of glaucoma that is often associated with increased intraocular pressure. This types of glaucoma exists at birth or later develops in an individual. The following symptoms are observed in a child with this glaucoma:

  • Enlarged and cloudy eyes
  • Excessive fluid leaks from the eyes
  • Sensitivity of the eyes to light

Childhood glaucoma is further divided into three categories:

  • Innate
  • Infantile
  • youthful

Secondary glaucoma

This type of glaucoma occurs as a result of other eye diseases and conditions, such as: B. Eye injuries, previous eye surgery or injury, trauma, eye infections, tumors, advanced cataracts, and prolonged use of some medications such as corticosteroids that increase eye pressure can damage the optic nerve and cause vision loss.

Secondary glaucoma can be open or closed angle, and damage to the drainage canal is treated with the help of surgery.

Thanks to Mohd Salman

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