Don’t panic … instead, take precautions to avoid infection with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Human coronavirus has been the most heard word in the world in recent times, due to its outbreak that was recognized in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Human coronavirus is generally considered to cause the common cold in people by the rest healthy. However, in the 21S t In the 20th century, the two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses which are the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) arose from animals sold for food, it is suspected that they are reservoirs that cause global epidemics with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Due to the recent outbreak in China, human coronaviruses received more attention.
In December 2019, cases of pneumonia of unknown cause emerged in Wuhan, China, with clinical presentations that resemble viral pneumonia. After proper analysis of the samples from the lower respiratory tract, indicating a new coronavirus, it was named as ‘new coronavirus 2019’ (2019-nCoV).
The initial spread is believed to be from animal to man, as the first infected individuals identified were workers at a seafood market. But then the spread to some people with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicated that a person-to-person spread is similar to the spread of influenza and other respiratory pathogens. It is believed to be mainly due to respiratory droplets that are produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
Common symptoms reported are:
- Dry cough
- Difficulty breathing
- Blood when coughing, chest pain
- Sometimes diarrhea
A severe infection can lead to pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.
How was the diagnosis made?
Anyone who complies Epidemiological and clinical criteria for 2019-nCoV must be tested.
Epidemiological criteria: anyone with a history of travel to the city of Wuhan, China, in the 14 days prior to the onset of the disease. OR Anyone in close contact with a laboratory-confirmed case of the 2019 novel coronavirus, 14 days before the onset of the disease.
Clinical criteria: Anyone with clinical symptoms consistent with a severe acute respiratory infection seeking medical attention or admitted to hospital with clinical or radiological evidence of pneumonia. OR Anyone with a fever or a recent history of fever (> = 38 ° C) and acute respiratory infection (sudden onset of respiratory infection with one or more of the following symptoms: shortness of breath, cough, or sore throat)
Diagnosis is made by laboratory tests of respiratory samples and serum (blood). Ta specific test currently recommended by WHO for the diagnosis and confirmation of 2019-nCoV It is by RT-PCR in real time.
Currently, there is no specific recommended treatment for respiratory disease caused by the ‘2019 novel coronavirus’. Symptomatic treatment is given to help relieve symptoms. In severe cases, support for the function of vital organs should be provided.
How can you protect yourself?
- It is advisable to wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water when you return home from outside.
- You can also use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap and water are not available.
- Avoid repeatedly touching your eyes and nose.
- Cover your nose and mouth while coughing or sneezing with a tissue.
- Avoid close contact with sick people with respiratory symptoms.
- It is advisable to stay home when you are sick so that you do not spread the germs to other people.
- Objects and surfaces need to be cleaned and disinfected frequently.
- Avoid large gatherings and crowded places.
- People with other chronic medical conditions, the elderly, infants, and children should receive special care and protection.
- Pregnant women should also take extra precautions to avoid infection with the Corona virus.
Avoiding exposure to the virus is the best form of prevention.
Currently, there is no vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus. The trails continue for the same.
– Dr. Y. Alekhya.
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